Background: Pulmonary lesion (PL) is a frequent systemic complication of acute pancreatitis (AP) directly related with severity and evolution of the disease. We have previously demonstrated that severity of PL and mortality in experimental AP are reduced after pancreatic enzyme content reduction following caerulein administration. Octreotide, a drug capable of reducing pancreatic secretion, has been used both prophylatically and therapeutically in AP. The possible effects of octreotide administration on pancreatic enzyme content and its influence on the systemic lesions of experimental AP were assessed in this study.
Methods: The experiment used Wistar male rats and was conducted in three branches: (1) IV saline infusion (n=10); IV caerulein infusion (0.133 mg.Kg-1.h-1) for three hours (n=10); or octreotide (10 mg. Kg-1) in a single SC dose (n=10). Trypsin, elastase and amylase pancreatic contents were determined after the infusions and/or octreotide administration; (2) Rats treated as above, were submitted to AP by 2.5% sodium taurocholate intraductal injection. Two hours thereafter amylase and TAP assays were performed in serum, ascites and pancreas; (3) Rats treated as in branch 1 were also submitted to AP and pulmonary histology studied after 24 hours.
Results: Animals receiving octreotide showed a significant increase of trypsin (16.3 10 2 U.mg prot. -1), elastase (0.8 10 2 U.mg prot. -1), and amylase (37.15 10 2 U.mg prot. -1) pancreatic contents when compared to controls (10.7; 0.53; 29.2) and caerulein treated rats (6.0; 0.4; 15.56). After AP, a significant increase of pancreatic TAP (12.62 nM.mg prot 1) was observed in animals pretreated with octreotide when compared to both control and caerulein groups (6.94 and 2.85 nM.mg prot 1). Pulmonary edema after AP was significantly increased in rats receiving octreotide as compared to the caerulein group (16.03% versus 7.25%).
Conclusion: Octreotide administration acutely increases pancreatic enzyme content and thus may have a potential deleterious influence in the evolution of AP.